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Multitasking Pins Circuit

Circuit Diagram
Description
It’s entirely logical that low-cost miniature microcontrollers have fewer ‘legs’ than their bigger brothers and sisters – some-times too few. The author has given some consideration to how to economise on pins, making them do the work of several. It occurred that one could exploit the high-impedance feature of a tri-state output. In this way the signal produced by the high-impedance state could be used for example as a CS signal of two ICs or else as a RD/WR signal. All we need are two op-amps or comparators sharing a single operating voltage of 5 V and outputs capable of reaching full Low and High levels in 5-V operation (preferably types with rail-to-rail outputs).
Suitable examples to use are the LM393 or LM311. The resistances in the voltage dividers in this circuit are uniformly 10k. Consequently input A lies at half the operating voltage (2.5V), assuming nothing is connected to the input - or the microcontroller pin connected is at high impedance. The non-inverting input of IC1A lies at two-thirds and the inverting input of IC1B at one third of the operating voltage, so that in both cases the outputs are set at High state. If the microcontroller pin at input A becomes Low, the output of IC1B becomes Low and that of IC1A goes High. If A is High, everything is reversed. 
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Brightness Controller Circuit For Small Lamps and Leds

Description 
 This device was designed on request; to control the light intensity of four filament lamps (i.e. a ring illuminator) powered by two AA or AAA batteries, for close-up pictures with a digital camera. Obviously it can be used in other ways, at anyone's will.IC1 generates a 150Hz square wave having a variable duty-cycle. When the cursor of P1 is fully rotated towards D1, the output positive pulses appearing at pin 3 of IC1 are very narrow.
Bulb LP1, driven by Q1, is off as the voltage across its leads is too low. When the cursor of P1 is rotated towards R2, the output pulses increase in width, reaching their maximum amplitude when the potentiometer is rotated fully clockwise. In this way the bulb reaches its full brightness.
Circuit Diagram:

Parts:
  • P1 = 470K
  • R1 = 10K
  • R2 = 47K
  • R3 = 1.5K
  • C1 = 22nF-63V
  • C2 = 100uF-25V
  • D1 = 1N4148
  • D2 = 1N4148
  • Q1 = BD681
  • B1 = 2xAA cells in series
  • IC1 = 7555 or TS555CN
  • LP1 = 1.5V 200mA Bulb
  • SW1 = SPST Switch 
Notes: 
  • LP1 can be one or more 1.5V bulbs wired in parallel. Maximum total output current allowed is about 1A.
  • R2 limits the output voltage, measured across LP1 leads, to 1.5V. Its actual value is dependent on the total current drawn by the bulb(s) and should be set at full load in order to obtain about 1.5V across the bulb(s) leads when P1 is rotated fully clockwise. 
 Source http://www.extremecircuits.net/2009/08/brightness-controller-circuit-for-small.html  
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On-off Infrared Remote Control Circuit

Description 
Most homes today have at least a few infrared remote controls, whether they be for the television, the video recorder, the stereo, etc. Despite that fact, who among us has not cursed the light that remained lit after we just sat down in a comfortable chair to watch a good film? This project proposes to solve that problem thanks to its original approach. In fact, it is for a common on/off switch for infrared remote controls, but what differentiates it from the commercial products is the fact that it is capable of working with any remote control.
Therefore, the first one you find allows you to turn off the light and enjoy your movie in the best possible conditions. The infrared receiver part of our project is entrusted to an integrated receiver (Sony SBX 1620-52) which has the advantage of costing less than the components required to make the same function. After being inverted by T1, the pulses delivered by this receiver trigger IC2a, which is nothing other than a D flip-flop configured in monostable mode by feeding back its output Q on its reset input via R4 and C3. The pulse that is produced on the output Q of IC.2A makes IC.2B change state, which has the effect of turning on or turning off the LED contained in IC3.
Circuit Diagram:

This circuit is an opto triac with zero-crossing detection which allows our setup to accomplish switching without noise. It actually triggers the triac T2 in the anode where the load to be controlled is found. The selected model allows us to switch up to 3 amperes but nothing should stop you from using a more powerful triac if this model turns out to be insufficient for your use. In order to reduce its size and total cost, the circuit is powered directly from the mains using capacitor C5 which must be a class X or X2 model rated at 230 volts AC.
This type of capacitor, called ‘self-healing’, is the only type we should use today for power supplies that are connected to ground. ‘Traditional’ capacitors, rated at 400 volts, do not really have sufficient safety guarantees in this area. Considering the fact that the setup is connected directly to the mains, it must be mounted in a completely insulated housing. A power outlet model works very well and can easily be used to inter-space between the grounded wall outlet and that of the remote control device.
Based on this principle, this setup reacts to any infrared signal and, as we said before, this makes it compatible with any remote control. On the other hand, it has a small disadvantage which is that sometimes it might react to the ‘normal’ utilization of one of these, which could be undesirable. To avoid that, we advise you to mask the infrared receiver window as much as possible so that it is necessary to point the remote control in its direction in order to activate it.
 Author: Christian Tavernier, Elektor Electronics Magazine
Source http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/05/on-off-infrared-remote-control.html
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Monostable Flip Flop Circuit

Description 
The monostable flip flop, sometimes called a 'one shot' is used to produce a single pulse each time it is triggered. It can be used to debounce a mechanical switch so that only one rising and one falling edge occurs for each switch closure, or to produce a delay for timing applications. In the discrete circuit, the left transistor normally conducts while the right side is turned off. Pressing the switch grounds the base of the conducting transistor causing it to turn off which causes the collector voltage to rise. As the collector voltage rises, the capacitor begins to charge through the base of the opposite transistor, causing it to switch on and produce a low state at the output. The low output state holds the left transistor off until the capacitor current falls below what is needed to keep the output stage saturated. When the output side begins to turn off, the rising voltage causes the left transistor to return to it's conducting state which lowers the voltage at it's collector and causes the capacitor to discharge through the 10K resistor (emitter to base). The circuit then remains in a stable state until the next input. The one shot circuit on the right employs two logic inverters which are connected by the timing capacitor. When the switch is closed or the input goes negative, the capacitor will charge through the resistor generating an initial high level at the input to the second inverter which produces a low output state. The low output state is connected back to the input through a diode which maintains a low input after the switch has opened until the voltage falls below 1/2 Vcc at pin 3 at which time the output and input return to a high state. The capacitor then discharges through the resistor (R) and the circuit remains in a stable state until the next input arrives. The 10K resistor in series with the inverter input (pin 3) reduces the discharge current through the input protection diodes. This resistor may not be needed with smaller capacitor values.
Circuit Diagram


Note:
These circuits are not re-triggerable and the output duration will be shorter than normal if the circuit is triggered before the timing capacitors have discharged which requires about the same amount of time as the output. For re-triggerable circuits, the 555 timer, or the 74123 (TTL), or the 74HC123 (CMOS) circuits can be used.

 Source http://www.bowdenshobbycircuits.info/page9.htm#mono.gif
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Hearing Aid Circuit

Description 
Commercially available hearing aids are quite costly. Here is an inexpensive hearing aid circuit that uses just four transistors and a few passive components. 
Circuit Diagram

Parts:
  • R1 = 2.2K
  • R2 = 680K
  • R3 = 3.3k
  • R4 = 220K
  • R5 = 1.5K
  • R6 = 220R
  • R7 = 100K
  • R8 = 680K
  • C1 = 104pF
  • C2 = 104pF
  • C3 = 1uF/10V
  • C4 = 100uF/10V
  • C5 = 100uF/10V
  • Q1 = BC549
  • Q2 = BC548
  • Q3 = BC548
  • Q4 = BC558
  • J1 = Headphone jack
  • B1 = 2x1.5V Cells
  • SW1 = On/Off-Switch
Circuit Operation:
On moving power switch SW1 to ‘on’ position, the condenser microphone detects the sound signal, which is amplified by Q1 and Q2. Now the amplified signal passes through coupling capacitor C3 to the base of Q3.
The signal is further amplified by Q4 to drive a low impedance earphone. Capacitors C4 and C5 are the power supply decoupling capacitors. The circuit can be easily assembled on a small, general-purpose PCB or a Vero board.
It operates off a 3V DC supply. For this, you may use two small 1.5V cells. Keep switch S to ‘off’ state when the circuit is not in use. To increase the sensitivity of the condenser microphone, house it inside a small tube.
 Author: www.electronicsforu.com
  Source http://www.extremecircuits.net/2009/07/hearing-aid.html
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Fog Lamp Switch Circuit

Description 
In most countries it is now mandatory or at least recommended to have a rear fog light on a trailer with the additional requirement that, when the trailer is coupled to the car, the rear fog light of the towing car has to be off. The circuit shown here is eminently suitable for this application. The circuit is placed near the rear fog light of the car. The 12-V connection to the lamp has to be interrupted and is instead connected to relay contacts 30 and 87A (K1, K3). When the rear fog light is turned on it will continue to operate normally.
Circuit Diagram:
 If a trailer with fog light is now connected to the trailer connector (7- or 13-way, K2), a current will flow through L1. L1 is a coil with about 8 turns, wound around reed contact S1. S1 will close because of the current through L1, which in turn energizes relay Re1 and the rear fog light of the car is switched off. The fog light of the trailer is on, obviously. The size of L1 depends on reed contact S1. The fog lamp is 21 W, so at 12 V there is a current of 1.75 A. L1 is sized for a current between 1.0 and 1.5 A, so that it is certain that the contact closes. The wire size has to be about 0.8 mm. The relay Re1 is an automotive relay that is capable of switching the lamp current. The voltage drop across L1 is negligible.
Source http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/05/fog-lamp-switch-circuit.html
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Car-Bulb Flasher Circuit

Description 
This astonishingly simple circuit allows one or two powerful 12V 21W car bulbs to be driven in flashing mode by means of a power MosFet. Devices of this kind are particularly suited for road, traffic and yard alerts and in all cases where mains supply are not available but a powerful flashing light are yet necessary.
Circuit Diagram:


Parts:
  • R1 = 6.8K
  • R2 = 220K
  • R3 = 22K
  • C1 = 100uF-25V
  • C2 = 10u-25V
  • D1 = 1N4002
  • Q1 = BC557
  • Q2 = IRF530
  • LP1 = 12V-21W Car Filament Bulb (See Notes)
  • SW1 = SPST Switch (3 Amp minimum) 
Notes:
  • Flashing frequency can be varied within a limited range by changing C1 value.
  • As high dc currents are involved, please use suitably sized cables for battery and bulb(s) connections. 
Source http://www.extremecircuits.net/2009/07/car-bulb-flasher.html
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Ignition Coil Buzz Box Circuit

Description 
Here's a circuit to create a buzzcoil using a standard automotive ignition coil. A 556 dual timer is used to establish the frequency and duty cycle of the coil current. One of the timers is used as an oscillator to generate the 200 Hz rectangular waveform needed to control the (IRF740 MOSFET) while the second timer switches the oscillator on and off as the breaker points open and close (closed = on). The result is a steady stream of sparks from the ignition coil spaced about 5 milliseconds apart while the breaker points are closed. 
Circuit Diagram
Operation:
Pin 8 and 12 are the threshold and trigger inputs of one timer which are driven by the breaker points and produce an inverted signal at the timer output (pin 9). When the points are closed to ground, pin 9 will be high and visa versa. The signal at pin 9 controls the reset line (pin 4) of the second timer and holds the output at pin 5 low while pin 4 is low and pins 8 and 12 are high (points open). The 15K and 4.7K resistors and 0.33uF capacitor are the timing components that establish the frequecy and duty cycle of the second timer which is about 4 milliseconds for the positive interval and 2 milliseconds for the negative. During the positive time interval, the MOSFET gates are held high which causes the ignition coil current to rise to about 4 amps. This equates to about 80 millijoules of energy in the coil which is released into the spark plug when the timer output (pin 5) moves to ground, turning off the MOSFET. A 12 volt zener diode is placed at the junction of the 10 and 27 ohm resistors to insure the MOSFET gate input never goes above 12 volts or lower than -0.7 volts. A 200 volt/5 watt zener is used at the MOSFET drain to limit the voltage to +200 and lengthen the spark duration. The circuit should operate reliably with a shorted plug, however operating the circuit with no load connected (plug wires fallen off, etc.) may cause a failure due to most of the power being absorbed by the zener. You can also use a transient voltage suppressor (TVS) such as the 1.5KE200A or 1.5KE300A in place of the zener. It's probably a better part, but hard to obtain.
Source http://www.bowdenshobbycircuits.info/
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Line Powered White LEDs

Description 
The LED circuit below is an example of using 25 white LEDs in series connected to the 120VAC line. It can be modified for more or less LEDs by adjusting the resistor value. The exact resistance will depend on the particular LEDs used. But working out the resistor value is a bit complicated since current will not continously flow through the resistor. In operation, the output of the bridge rectifier will be about 120 DC RMS or 170 volts peak. If we use 25 white LEDs with a forward voltage of 3 volts each, the total LED voltage will be 75 volts. The peak resistor voltage will be 170- 75 or 95 volts but the resistor voltage will not be continous since the input must rise above 75 before any current flows. This (dead time) represents about 26 degrees of the 90 degree half wave rectified cycle, (asin) 75/170 = (asin) .44 = 26 degrees. This means the resistor will conduct during 90-26 = 64 degrees, or about 71 percent of the time.
Next we can work out the peak LED current to determine the resistor value. If the LED current is 20mA RMS, the peak current will be 20*1.414 or 28mA. But since the duty cycle is only 71 percent, we need to adjust this figure up to 28/0.71 = 39mA. So, the resistor value should be 95/.039 = 2436 ohms (2.4K) and the power rating will be .02^2 *2400= .96 watts. A two watt size is recommended.
Now this circuit can also be built using 2 diodes and resistor as shown in the lower drawing. The second diode in parallel with the LEDs is used to avoid a reverse voltage on the LEDs in case the other diode leaks a little bit. It may not be necessary but I thought it was a good idea.
Working out the resistor value is similar to the other example and comes out to about half the value of the full wave version, or about 1.2K at 1 watt in this case. But the peak LED current will be twice as much or about 78mA. This is probably not too much, but you may want to look up the maximum current for short duty cycles for the LEDs used and insure 79mA doesn't exceed the spec.
Circuit Diagram 


Source http://www.bowdenshobbycircuits.info/
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Simple Logic Probe Circuit

Description 
This simple logic probe has both LEDs on with no signal at the input but due to the nor gates connected to the probe, indicates correctly when a high or low signal is present. It also works correctly for pulse trains. Normally both LEDs are forward biased and therefore on, powered by the 12V supply. When a logic "high" is present at the probe, IC1a's output goes low sending IC1b's output high. This turns off LED1 but forward-biases (and turns on) LED2. Conversely, a logic "low" at the probe will send IC1b low, turning LED1 on and LED2 off. 
Circuit Diagram:
Source http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/05/simple-logic-probe.html
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